Shahid Beheshti
University of Medical Sciences


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Endometrium immunomodulation by intrauterine insemination administration of treated peripheral blood mononuclear cell prior frozen/thawed embryos in patients with repeated implantation failure


In assisted reproductive technology (ART) programmes, approximately 10% of infertile patients have at least two or three repeated implantation failures (RIFs) after an in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. Successful implantation mainly depends on local immune tolerance mechanisms involving a spectrum of cytokines, interleukins and growth factors. The latter have played pivotal roles in the recruitment of immune cells (and notably T-lymphocyte cells). In total, 250 couples participating in frozen-thawed embryo transfer programme were incorporated in a randomized clinical trial (peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) subgroup: n=122; control subgroup: n=128). In the PBMC group, a blood sample was collected 5 days before the scheduled frozen-thawed embryo transfer; PBMCs were isolated using Ficoll separation and then cultured for 72 h. Two days prior to embryo transfer, 0.4 ml of cultured PBMCs were transferred into the patient's uterus. Although the clinical pregnancy rate was higher in the PBMC group (34.4%) than in the control group (23.4%), this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.05 in a chi-squared test). Nevertheless, when we limited the analysis to patients with ≥3 RIFs (n=138), there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate between the PBMC group (38.6%) and the control group (19.7%; P=0.01). Our results imply that PBMC transfer can be part of effective fertility treatment for patients with RIF.

KEYWORDS: Corticotrophin-releasing hormone; In vitro fertilization; Peripheral blood mononuclear cell; Pregnancy rate; Repeated implantation failure


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Leydig cells express the FABP9 in human testis


BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the FABP9/PERF15 gene is expressed in mice and in some other mammals in the testicles and in the spermatozoa, and its possible effect on the ability of the sperm to form and maintain the nucleus until fertilization.


Since the FABP9 homologue gene exists in humans, and so far no research has been done to indicate the exact location of this gene in the organism, it is necessary to find a better interpretation of its possible performance by its localization in the testis.


Biopsied testicular tissue samples after sectioning and embedding on class slide were subjected to IHC with specific monoclonal antibody and underwent final staining with hematoxylin and eventually evaluated by light microscope.


The antibody could successfully bind and detect its related protein, FABP9, in Leydig cells rather than spermatogenic cells.


The expression of FABP9 in a different cell type rather than spermatogenic cells in other mammals, reports of a plausible different function for the gene product like its involvement in fertility potential in homo sapiens.



 FABP9; Leydig cells; fertility; spermatogenesis


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Action mechanisms of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the oocyte maturation and developmental competence: Potential advantages and disadvantages.



Infertility is a growing problem worldwide. Currently, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is widely performed to treat infertility. However, a high percentage of IVF cycles fails, due to the poor developmental potential of the retrieved oocyte to generate viable embryos. Fatty acid content of the follicular microenvironment can affect oocyte maturation and the subsequent developmental competence. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are mainly used by follicle components as primary energy sources whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a wide range of roles. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs in prevention, treatment, and amelioration of some pathophysiological conditions including heart diseases, cancer, diabetes, and psychological disorders. Nevertheless, current findings regarding the effects of n-3 PUFAs on reproductive outcomes in general and on oocyte quality more specifically are inconsistent. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of potential molecular mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs affect oocyte maturation and developmental competence, particularly in the setting of IVF and thereby aims to elucidate the reasons behind current discrepancies around this topic.


omega-3 fatty acids; oocyte; preimplantation embryo; reproduction


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Expression of hTERT in placenta of IUGR pregnancy in an Iranian population



Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most important causes of the fetus and newborn mortality in the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hTERT gene expression level and IUGR pregnancy in an Iranian population.

Study design

The hTERT expression was analyzed in 66 placenta samples consisting of 33 controls and 33 IUGRs, and compared by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software.


There was no significant difference between the placentas samples of IUGR and healthy individuals for hTERT gene expression (p?=?0.621).



To the best of our knowledge, the current investigation is the first study on the association between hTERT gene expression and IUGR in Iran. According to our results, there was no significant correlation between hTERT and IUGR etiology in this study. Surely, using more samples could provide more definite results on this matter in the future.

Keywords: IUGR; Placenta; Pregnancy; hTERT

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Comparison between the effect of regular human insulin and NPH with novo-rapid and levemir insulin in glycemic control in gestational diabetes.



Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the prevalent adverse conditions among pregnant women which needs delicate monitoring and control. GDM is a state in which the pregnant women's blood glucose level exceeds the normal range. Our goal was to determine the best therapeutic method to control the blood glucose level among GDM patients by comparing of the efficacy between two Insulin consisting, Novo-rapid + Levemir Insulin and Regular + NPH Insulin.


In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial study, we enrolled 100 women with GDM as an inpatient. In group A, patients underwent treating with Regular + NPH Insulin, and in group B, patients underwent treating with Novo-rapid + Levemir Insulin. Patient's demographic and clinical information gathered by specified several times during the study and analysis performed by SPSS21.


Despite significant changes in the two groups patient's blood glucose levels; we could not find any remarkable differences between the two groups. In the case of patient and health care system satisfaction and the length of the hospitalization group, B was better than group A.


Altogether, The Novo-rapid and Levemir Insulin in comparing with the Regular and NPH Insulin were practically advantageous due to the simple using method and short hospitalization period of the patient. Thus, we prefer and suggest this beneficial method (using Novo-rapid and Levemir Insulin) to reach therapeutic goals.


GDM; insulin NPH; insulin levemir; insulin novo-rapid; insulin regular


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Pericardium in Reconstructive Urologic Surgeries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.




The use of pericardium has been expanded into different surgical modalities; however, there are scarce data regarding the feasibility of the pericardium in reconstructive urologic surgeries. We systematically reviewed the literature on the effectiveness of the pericardial tissue for reconstructive urologic surgeries.


PubMed and Scopus were searched online for evidence on the use of the pericardium in urologic surgeries. Through the methodology recommended by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines, 38 of 4,071 studies were identified.


A total of 715 patients and 139 animals underwent reconstructive urologic surgeries using the pericardium. Bladder, urethral, and renal reconstructions were successful in 100% of the human cases. The rates of dissatisfaction, glans hypoesthesia, and penile shortening were comparable between the pericardial graft surgeries and the other operations during penile straightening, but there was a trend among the patients with pericardial grafts toward having a more penile curvature at follow-up (risk ratio [RR] 2.03, 95% CI 0.90-4.61, p = 0.09; I2 = 0%). Among the animal studies, there were 4 reports of penile reconstruction, 7 studies of bladder reconstruction, and 1 study of urethroplasty. Bladder reconstruction and urethroplasty were successful in 83 and 20% of the animals, respectively. The pooled result of the stimulated intracorporeal pressure 5 V significantly favored pericardial grafts during penile reconstruction (RR 2.61, 95% CI 1.26-3.97, p = 0.0002; I2 = 0%).


Our systematic review demonstrates the feasibility of the pericardium, regardless of its type, in urologic surgeries. It, however, seems that urethral substitution needs further investigation. Given the lower cost, easier handling, and less immunogenicity of the pericardium, further studies are required to examine its pros and cons.


 Bladder; Kidney; Penis; Pericardial tissue; Reconstructive urologic surgery; Urethra


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Men's Health and Reproductive Health Research Center

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences


Address: Tajrish Sq., Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran

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Fax: +98 21 22 72 42 15

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